Maternal Behaviour Q-sort Manual Version 3.1
David R. Pederson, Greg Moran, & Sandi Bento
Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario N6A 5C2, CANADA
October, 1994 (revised May, 1999)

This is a revision of the Maternal Behaviour Q-set version 2.1 that is published in: Pederson, D. R. & Moran, G. (1995). Appendix B. Maternal Behavior Q-set. In E. Waters, B. E. Vaughn, G. Poseda, & K. Kondo-Ikemura (Eds.) Caregiving, cultural, and cognitive perspectives on secure-base behavior and working models: New Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 60(2-3, Serial No. 244), (pp. 247-254).

Our major intent in this revision was to develop more items that might distinguish mothers in avoidant relationships from those in ambivalent relationships. We also removed items that do not directly describe the infant's experience. For example, in version 2.1 there is an item about mother being a good informant. This is a good item in that it is usually easy to get relevant information during the home visit, observers generally agree, and it distinguishes mothers in secure relationships from those in non-secure relationships. The difficulty is that the item refers to the observer's rather than the infant's direct experience with the mother. Because our goal in writing q-set items is to describe mother-infant interactions rather than identifying sensitive mothers, items that did not directly describe the infant's experiences were omitted in version 3.0. If your purpose is to distinguish sensitive from insensitive mothers, either version will work well. We have a few cases where the observer completed both versions. The summary sensitivity scores were very similar.

Observation procedures
Please read our description of observer training and observation procedures in the 1995 Monograph paper cited above as well as in the description of the home visit procedures on pp 118 - 120 of the same monograph. The researcher should also carefully review the advice about q-sort procedures provided by Everett Waters: It is essential that the observers are familiar with attachment principles and with the q-sort items, that they take extensive notes about maternal availability, acceptance and cooperation during the visit, and that they carefully review and extend these notes after the visit.

Q-sorting procedures
We print each item on 2- by 4.25-inch heavy stock cards, be sure to include the item numbers, but not item weights.

The sorting procedures take place in three phases. (Be sure the cards are shuffled before you start your sort.)

First, sort the cards into three piles - with cards descriptive of the mother on the right hand pile, cards referring to behaviours not observed, only moderately descriptive of the mother, or sometimes true and sometimes not true in the middle, and cards that are not characteristic of mother on the left. Mechanically it works out better if the piles are roughly equal but with slightly fewer cards in the middle pile. Remember that you want to describe the salient characteristics of the interactions you observed. Then sort the cards in the "like the mother pile" into three approximately equal piles that vary in how similar the behaviours are to the mother's observed behaviour.

Then sort the "unlike the mother pile" into three piles that differ in how uncharacteristic they are and, finally sort the middle pile into three piles. This second sort will also allow you to correct misplacements from the original sort. You should now have nine piles with roughly the same number of cards in each pile.

Now starting with the far right pile, place the cards so you can read each card. If you have fewer than 12 cards in that pile, look at the next pile and move enough cards over so you have at least 12 cards.

Now select the 10 cards are the most characteristic of the mother's observed behaviour. These 10 cards go into pile 9. Move the remaining cards to the next pile (pile 8) and do the same thing - pick out the 10 cards from that pile that are most descriptive of the mother. Again make sure that you have at least 12 cards to examine.

Continue this process until you have finished piles 9, 8, 7 and 6. Then go to the unlike end and do the same process of picking the 10 cards least like the mother you observed. These cards go into pile 1. You should end up with 9 piles of 10 cards each (the order within each pile is not relevant).

Now record the item numbers on a data sheet. We find it simplest to have a sheet with 9 rows numbered 1 through 9, each with 10 columns. Essentially what you have produced are ratings of the mother's behaviour on a nine-point scale with the restriction that each scale point is used exactly 10 times. The data sheet lists the items with each rating.

Data entry
Of course you can develop your own software to handle data entry. We have found that a simple spread sheet program such as Excel or QuatroPro works well. We have a newer version that has multiple folders in one file. One folder, labelled 'data entry', has a column with 10 '1's', 10 '2's'...and so on to 10 '9's'. We copy that column (this will become the data column) and the enter the card numbers from each pile such that the 10 cards in pile 1 are next to the 1's and so forth so that you end up with two columns of 90 rows (not counting id rows) - one with the 1's, 2's, etc., and the second with the q-set item numbers.

We then use the "sort" function to sort those two columns by the item numbers so that you have a column of item numbers from 1 to 90 and a column of the pile number (or rating) for each item. Since most statistical programs assume that subjects will be in rows, we transpose the data column into a row and copy this row into a second folder, labelled 'data'. Of course you will want provide participant and observer identification for each row and we find it helpful to have the item numbers listed in a row at the top data matrix. We have the sensitivity criterion sort as the second row in this data matrix. The mother's sensitivity score can be calculated by the spread sheet program's correlation command.

Q-set items
Note: the item itself follows the item number. The number following each item is the criterion weight for sensitivity for that item. Don't print this one the cards used for sorting.

1. Provides B with little opportunity to contribute to the interaction .

Explanation: M may initiate play or interactions, however, she does not follow B's lead, as a result there is little or no turn taking. M is directive without regard to B's intentions. If little or no interaction place in the middle piles. 2

2. Monitors B's activities during visit.

Explanation: Regardless of competing tasks, M keeps close tabs on B. Should B enter another room M is aware of B's activities, her behaviour suggests she knows what B is doing at all times. 8

3. M's responses are unpredictable.

Low: Responds consistently in same manner.

Explanation: The predictability of M's responding is evaluated. From the B's experience, it is difficult to know how M will respond to positive or negative signals. Consider any response and lack of responses to B's signals. If M consistently ignores B's signals or is consistently responsive, place in the unlike piles. 2

4. During interaction with visitor does not notice B.

Explanation: M is preoccupied with visitors and does not monitor B, unaware of B's actions. M fails to notice or comment on B's activities. 2

5. Awkward and ill at ease during intimate interactions with B.

Explanation: During times of physical contact with B, appears mechanical, inanimate or perfunctory. For example - M not comfortable holding and cuddling B. When B approaches for contact, may turn B away from her. If no contact is observed place in the middle piles. 1

6. Supports interaction of B with visitor.

Examples: Introduces B to visitor. M positions herself where she can facilitate B's interactions with visitor. Suggests what B is comfortable with in interactions with strangers. 6

7. Treats B as an inanimate object when moving her around or adjusting her posture.

Explanation: Physical movements of B are awkward, perhaps without gentleness.

Examples - treats B like a puppet, swoops in on B, roughly adjusts B's posture. 4

8. Gives signal or explanation to B when leaving the room.

Explanation: Consider context of B's activity to judge the appropriateness of M's signal. If not interacting with B and B is focussed on an activity, may not require a signal. If interacting with B and needs to leave the room, gives an explanation or signal when she leaves the room. If M does not leave the room, place in the middle piles .7

9. Ignores positive signals (vocalizations, smiles, reaches).

Explanation: B's positive affect, or B's attempts to engage M are ignored. These are B's signals directed to M. If B does not signal M, place in the middle piles. 2

10. Speaks to B directly.

Examples: B is attending when M directs comments to B. Elicits B's attention before communicating. 6

11. Repeats words carefully and slowly to B as if teaching meaning or labelling an activity or object.

Elaboration: M expands B's vocalizations or activities in a teaching style. 4

12. Naptimes are determined by M's convenience rather than the immediate needs of B.

Explanation: M schedules appointment to fit her schedule rather than during a time when B usually at his/her best. During visit should B become tired M does not acknowledge, or respond. 4

13. Uses sibling or television to keep B entertained.

Explanation: M makes herself unavailable by putting B away in front of the television or by having sibling take over interaction with B. If M remains available to monitor and attend to B even if TV is on, place in the unlike piles. 5

14. Breaks off from B in mid-interaction to speak to visitor or attend to some other activity.

Explanation: Terminates or interrupts interaction while actively engaged with B without notice or preparation. Example - M sets B down when telephone rings or to talk to visitor while B is interacting with her. 3

15. Attempts to involve B in games or activities that are beyond B's current capability.

Explanation: Unaware or insensitive to B's current ability Example - engages B in activity when B appears frustrated, or unable to complete. This is in contrast with scaffolding, i.e., when M clearly assists B in attaining new goals. 4

16. During ongoing interactions, misses slow down or back off signals from B.

Explanation: M does not alter interaction in response to B's cues of disinterest or dislike. Example - may continue to offer B a toy in spite of B's turning away or refusals, or may request B "perform" when B is not interested. 2

17. Content and pace of interaction set by M rather than according to B's responses.

Explanation: M follows own agenda during interaction. Ignores B's initiatives or signals to change pace or content of the interactions. Imposes her wishes. 1

18. Home shows little evidence of presence of B.

Explanation: B's belongings not immediately obvious, indicating a lack of support of the B's exploratory behaviour. Surroundings are not "baby proofed" so that M has to restrict B's exploration.

If toys and B's belongings are accessible or M creates an interesting and safe environment for the B to explore, place in the unlike piles. 4

19. Places B in another room when B is in a bad mood or cranky.

Explanation: Puts B away from M during displays of negative affect. Exammle - removes B to bedroom or playpen. If no negative affect, place in the middle piles. 4

20. Responds accurately to signals of distress.

Explanation: Accuracy is defined by B's response. B's distress is lessened or terminated after M's intervention. If no intervention from M, place in the unlike piles. If no distress place in the middle piles. 9

21. Overwhelmed by caretaking demands.

Explanation: M is struggling to provide basic care. Example - M may be passive, withdrawn, or frustrated during caregiving tasks such as changing, feeding. 3

22. Appears to tune out and not notice bids for attention.

Explanation: Psychologically inaccessible to B, unaware of B's signals. 1

23. Provides B with unrestricted access to her.

Explanation: M positions herself so that B able to establish proximity on his/her own. If B mobile, able to get to M without any obstacles. If B not mobile M positions herself near B. 8

24. Arranges her location so she can perceive B's signals.

Examples - sits facing B, if B moves M re-positions herself to enable her to hear or see B. 7

25. Not skillful in dividing her attention between B and competing demands and therefore misses B's cues.

Explanation: What is being assessed is M's skill at attending to simultaneous demands. When involved with other tasks has lapses in awareness of B. 3

26. Responds immediately to cries/whimpers.

Explanation: The timing of M's response is what is evaluated. Consider all forms of negative affect, including cries, displays of frustration, and fusses. If no negative affect, place in the middle piles. 8

27. Responds to B's distress and non-distress signals even when engaged in some other activity such as having a conversation with visitor.

Explanation: M not only attends but also responds to B's cues while engaged in other tasks. 9

28. Offers an acceptable alternative to B to divert attention from inappropriate activity.

Explanation: Provides a more appropriate activity that engages the B. 7

29. When B is distressed, M is able to identify the source.

Explanation: M does not appear to be guessing at what B needs, seems to know B well as evidenced by B's responses to her interventions. 9

30. Interactions with B characterized by active physical manipulations.

Explanation: Interactions are physical rather than verbal. M physically controls B's movements, position, and actions.

Examples - may move B's hand to object; vigorously moves B, hand over hand pat-a-cake. 5

31. Redirects B's bids for proximity and/or contact without a transition period to facilitate smooth interactions.

Explanations: Consider the abruptness of how M redirects B's bids for proximity or contact.

Examples - does not acknowledge B's desires for contact; diverts B's attention without regard for B's need for contact met. If M acknowledges B's bid and offers an alternative that is acceptable to B, place in the unlike piles. 3

32. Non-synchronous interactions with B, i.e., the timing of M's behaviour out of phase with B's behaviour.

Examples - may interfere with activity B is enjoying; may not acknowledge B's communications to her; initiates interactions when B is attending to other activities; is active when B is quiet; quiet when B is active. 1

33. Repeated series of interventions in search of best method to satisfy B, resorts to trial and error.

Explanation: No apparent strategy in meeting B's needs, interventions seem without obvious rationale. No intuitive sense of B's needs. 3

34. Interactions revolve around B's tempo and current state.

Explanation: Indicates awareness of B's current state by following B's lead.

Examples - when B is tired does not push B to complete a task, changes the interaction according to B's interest or level of frustration. 9

35. Well resolved interaction with B -- interaction ends when B is satisfied -- also consider the termination of ongoing interactions that B is enjoying.

Explanation: Comfort-seeking as well as pleasurable activities are considered. M seems to know the moment B has had enough.

Example - if B is in contact with M, does not terminate, interrupt, or redirect until B is ready to be put down; if B is engaged with play with M, continues activity until B moves on or otherwise signals the game is finished. 9

36. Interrupts activity that is likely to be dangerous.

Explanation: If the context requires, M makes a quick response that clearly protects B, but may not allow B an alternative. M's clear priority is to protect the B. 7

37. Interferes with appropriate activity if it is likely to get B messy.

Explanation: M may seems more concerned with B getting messy rather than B's need to explore or B's budding independence.

Example - M frequently wipes B's face and fingers while B is eating or drinking; interferes during mealtime where eating soft foods with fingers may be appropriate. If messy play not observed place in the middle piles. 5

38. Provides nutritional snacks.

Explanation: This is a "filler" card; there is not a direct implication about M's sensitivity. However, it is important to sort filler card this accurately because the placement of each card influences the placement of all other cards. If providing nutritional snacks is one of the most salient characteristics of the M, this card will replace other cards in the most like piles.

Example - gives infant and toddler nutritionally appropriate foods. 5

39. Instructive during interactions with B.

Examples - Seizes interactions as instructional opportunities to teach B; labels B's activities; asks "what is...?"; uses directives during interactions. 5

40. Encourages B's initiatives in feeding.

Explanation: considers what is age appropriate and what facilitates B's initiatives.

Examples - provides B an opportunity to feed him/herself by providing finger foods; allows B to use spoon. 5

41. Interactions with B are object oriented (e.g. with toys, food).

Explanation: M uses toys or food to mediate interactions. Notice especially what M does in response to fusses and proximity bids. 4

42. Expressions of affection are limited to perfunctory, mechanical kisses, typically on the head.

Explanation: expressions of affection are abrupt or obligatory, lacking in an intimate, engaging quality.

Example - swoops down and pecks B on head. If no expressions of affection place in the middle piles. If affectionate exchanges are warm, with spontaneous touches, caresses, kisses or in response to B's gestures of affection place in the unlike piles. 2

43. Is animated when interacting with B.

Explanation: uses varied expressions of affect, enthusiastic with B. If M apathetic or indifferent in interaction with B place in the unlike piles. 6

44. Realistic expectations regarding B's self-control of affect.

Explanation: intervenes when B has reached the limit in the ability to self soothe or otherwise regulate emotions. Determine M's expectations by noting the timing of M's intervention as well as the content.

Examples - limits B's frustration with task by offering assistance; monitors B when falls to see if B needs comfort in managing hurt; gently suggests alternative activity to contain B's over excitement 8

45. Praises B.

Examples -shows B approval by acknowledging and celebrating B's accomplishments and activities with B. 7

46. Molds B to self when holding.

Middle: If B not held by M

Explanation: M's body is relaxed, rounded, and oriented to accept close contact of B, cuddles B to her. If M pulls away, sits back , or places arms between herself and B while holding place in the unlike piles. 7

47. Displays affection by touching, caressing.

Middle: No expressions of affection

Low: affection expressed in non-physical ways

Examples - takes the opportunity when B is near to spontaneously touch or caress tenderly as expressions of positive feelings toward B. If M's expressions of affection are primarily verbal place in the unlike piles 7

48. Points to and identifies interesting things in B's environment.

Explanation: aware of B's environment such that she points to and labels things that may be of interest to B. Also consider how M structures the environment for B by offering verbal prompts to transitions in activities, introduces visitors, labels toys and activities during play. 6

49. Seeks interactions with B.

Explanation: initiates interactions with B. The content, quality and timing of the interactions are not assessed here.

Examples - introduces toys, talks to B, invites B to approach. 6

50. Creates interesting physical environment for B.

Explanation: has apparently thought about B's needs, interests and developmental level by providing toys and objects that are accessible and appropriate to support B's exploration and learning. Also consider the provision of a place for B to play with these objects. 6

51. Provides age appropriate toys.

Explanation: is mindful of B's developmental abilities by giving B toys that are developmentally suitable. 5

52. Uses verbal prohibitions (e.g., "no or don't").

Explanation: inhibits, or controls B's actions verbally. 5

53. Slows pace down, waits for B's response during interactions.

Explanation: ensures the B has an opportunity to respond by adapting the pace of the interactions.

Examples - gives B opportunity to explore when introducing a new activity; in puzzle play is more focused on supporting play than completing puzzle. 8

54. Teases B to promote continued interaction/contact.

Explanation: taunts B as a way of expressing negative feeling. As in Ainsworth's rejection scale, even when B responds positively to teasing, there seems to be some negative aggressive component in the teaser's behaviour - and in extremes teasing is sadistic and hostile.

Examples - offers toy then puts it out of B's reach when B shows interest; repeatedly pushes toy in B's face; trying to distract B by poking at B when distressed. If not observed and would not be expected from this M, place in the unlike piles. 1

55. Respects B as an individual, i.e., able to accept B's behaviour even if it is not consistent with her wishes.

Explanation: accepts B's desire to express autonomy, explore, and or experience his/her environment without restrictions even when these experiences may be contrary to M's expectations. This does not include experiences which may be dangerous or which the B may need M's interventions (e.g., bedtime). 8

56. Has lots of "shoulds" or mind sets about B's care, has rigid routines.

Explanation: has pre-conceived, inflexible ideas about child rearing without regard or accommodation to B's actual needs or desires.

Examples - keeps B on schedule rather than meeting the immediate needs of B; insists on early toilet training or weaning. 5

57. Shows delight in interaction with B.

Explanation: enjoyment and adoration of B is evident in interaction. Interactions are characterized by spontaneous positive gestures, vocalizations, smiles to B. .9

58. Considers B's needs when structuring environment.

Explanation: consider both psychological and physical needs of B.

Examples - arranges her schedule to reflect needs of B; provides quiet time when B is stressed or tired; structures the physical environment to allow for uninhibited exploration and movement; dangerous and adult objects are out of B's reach; B's toys are within reach. 6

59. Lets B carry on with appropriate activity without interruption.

Explanation: as in Ainsworth's cooperation scale, M's interventions and initiations of interaction do not break into or interrupt the B's ongoing activity. Interactions are geared in both timing and quality to B's state, mood, and current interest.

Example - if B is engaged in appropriate activity, waits until B is finished before introducing a new task. 7

60. Scolds or criticizes B.

Explanation: interactions characterized by reprimands, scorn or hostile criticism. There is a punitive tone to the interactions. 2

61. Is irritated by demands of B for physical contact or proximity.

Explanation: Irritation may be expressed covertly by purposely ignoring bids for contact with signs of irritation (e.g., sighs, hostile glances). Irritation may also be expressed overtly by criticizing B's bids for proximity (e.g., 'oh, you suck' said in a derogatory tone) or by abruptly physically redirecting the B's bids for contact. 3

62. Interprets cues correctly as evidenced by B's response.

Explanation: predicts B's needs accurately as shown by B's satisfaction with her response.

Example - B fussing, M intervenes and B settles and appears content 9

63. Signals awareness of B's distress to B, but does not intervene.

Explanation: Not ignoring B's distress, she is aware but does not respond.

Example - may look or comment to B but does not give B what B seems to want or need. 2

64. Greets B when re-entering room.

Explanation: Demonstrates an awareness of B's attentional state.

Example - when she comes back after a brief separation, will acknowledge B, except when such a greeting might be intrusive or disruptive of B's ongoing activity. If not observed, place in middle piles. 6

65. Responds to B's signals.

Explanation: not only is M aware of B's signals to her, she also responds to these signals. Responses may or may not be appropriate. If B does not signal, place in middle piles 8

66. Consistently unresponsive.

Explanation: does not respond to negative or positive signals, consider the consistency of her unresponsiveness in the pile placement.

Example - M responds to negative signals and ignores positive signals place in middle piles. 1

67. Responds only to frequent, prolonged or intense distress.

Explanation: intervenes and/or comforts B only when signals of distress are frequent, or prolonged or intense, otherwise seems oblivious to B's distress. M does not respond to B's less intense signals of distress such as fusses and whimpers. 1

68. Interactions appropriately vigorous and exciting as judged from B's responses.

Explanation: interactions with B are well-timed and matched to B's level of activity or enthusiasm. 8

69. Notices when B is distressed (e.g., cries, fusses or whimpers).

Explanation: shows that she is aware of B's distress. Gives an observable sign to B that she is attending. She may look or comment to B. M may or may not intervene. 7

70. Response delayed such that B cannot connect M's responses with the action that initiated it.

Explanation: because of her timing, responses are not contingent on or obviously related to B's signals or behaviour.

Example: B's signals for juice, M gets juice several minutes later; B's signals to be picked up, M ignores until she finishes her activity in progress and then responds. 1

71. Builds on the focus of B's attention.

Explanation: aware of B's interest and attention and uses this information as a guide for her interactions.

Example - in play, attends to what the B is interested in, rather than introducing a new activity. 9

72. Notices when B smiles and vocalizes.

Explanation: gives an observable sign that she is aware of B's positive signals.

Example - looks when B smiles, but may or may not respond by smiling, vocalizing. 8

73. When irritated with B, disengages or distances herself from interaction with B.

Middle: Condition not observed or irritation not directed to B.

Low: Irritation with B expressed through increased emotionally engaged interaction.

Explanation: if irritated, withdraws from B either by physically or psychologically distancing herself.

Examples - when she is annoyed with B, refuses to engage in joint activity or may respond with flat affect or indifference.

Place in low piles if irritation or annoyance expressed by emotionally charged interactions with B. Example - B does something M does not like, she may retaliate by scolding, teasing, or screaming at B. 5

74. Anxious about B's exploration (e.g. hovers over B).

Explanation: Overzealous monitoring of B's independent exploration. Seems overly concerned or hyper vigilant about B's developmentally appropriate exploration.

Example - may physically restrict B's movements, stands over B when B is obviously good at walking. 4

75. Encourages independent exploration of environment.

Explanation: acknowledges B's exploratory interests by providing B with opportunities to explore independently.

Example - introduces a potentially interesting activity or toy, then allows B to investigate

Place in middle piles if M ignores B's exploration

Place in unlike piles if M discourages independent exploration by controlling or interfering with B's exploration. 7

76. Uses close bodily contact to soothe B.

Explanation: when B is upset, M comforts B physically by cuddling, molding herself to B.

Example - when B distressed M picks up and hugs.

Place in middle piles if no distress 8

77. Vocalizes to B throughout the visit.

Explanation: uses verbal contact to signal her accessiblity. This item assesses the quantity of vocializations, they may or may not be appropriate in timing or content.

Example - there is a sense that M is aware and connected to B. Place in low piles if M never talks to B 6

78. Plays social games with B.

Explanation: engages B with interactive games.

Examples - peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake, round and round the garden, and other age appropriate, animated play 6

79. Distressed by B's demands.

Explanation: has a low tolerance for more insistent signals; has difficulty accepting responsibility for B's care.

Examples - when B needs care or comfort, M is annoyed, irritable, exasperated or resentful. 4

80. Annoyed by B's uncooperative behaviour.

Explanation: does not accept or respect B when B does not comply with M's initiatives or requests.

Examples - when B does not comply, M may escalate the emotional tone by joining battle with B; putting B away, ignoring B, or refusing to give into B's demands. 4

81. Spontaneously expresses positive feelings to B.

Explanation: love and acceptance is expressed outwardly to B; M not only loves B, but these feelings are made obvious to B.

Examples - shows her feelings of pleasure to B by saying endearing things to B, when B does something cute, smiles and comments to B. 9

82. Physically restricts B's movements while in proximity.

Explanation: physically restrains B. Impersonal restraints such as playpens and highchairs may be considered if B is placed in these as a way of restricting the B's active exploration.

Example - encloses the B with her legs while in play so B cannot move away. 3

83. Aloof when interacting with B.

Explanation: interactions are impersonal, detached, and remote from B's activity in progress.

Example - interactions seem more obligatory than pleasureable 3

84. Display of affect does not match B's display of affect (e.g., smiles when B is distressed).

Explanation: affect is not congruent with B's emotional state, may indicate that M mislables B's affect.

Example - B frightened, M laughs and says B is shy. 3

85. Interactions with B are incomplete.

Explanation: interactions are fragmented or arbitrarily terminated before reaching a natural end. Does not give B opportunity to fully explore current activity.

Example -introduces different activity when B is enjoying playing with a toy. 3

86. Terminates physical contact before B is satisfied.

Explanation: when is in contact, breaks off contact before B is soothed completely or ready to move on to other activities. 2

87. Actively opposes B's wishes.

Explanation: does not acknowledge B's autonomy, does not accept that B has a will, actively interferes or redirects B from activity in progress. Does not considers B's mood and activity in progress. 2

88. Interactions with B are characterized by conflict.

Explanation: M and B seem to have different agendas, lack of mutual enjoyment, undercurrent of hostility to each other. 1

89. Interventions satisfy B.

Explanation: interventions are effective as evidenced by B being settled or content. 9

90. Punitive or retaliatory during interactions with B.

Explanation: underling hostility and rejection of B.

Examples - scolds, criticizes, ignores, aggressive, abrupt jerking about, or slaps B. 1

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